Franco-Polish composer; b. Poland. He brought romantic piano music to unprecedented heights of expressiveness. In the 1830s he settled in Paris; although he remained a Polish nationalist, he never returned home. He associated with literary and artistic figures, notably George Sand, with whom he had a liaison from 1836 to 1847, when a long illness developed into tuberculosis. Chopin established the piano as a solo instrument free from choral or orchestral influence. In his piano concertos in E Minor (1833) and F Minor (1836), the piano dominates the orchestra.